Classification, Staging and Syndromes

Altman surgical classification of sacrococcygeal teratoma

Type I: primarily external – best prognosis 47% Type II: Dumbell shape with equal external and internal component 34% Type III: mainly internal within abdomen and pelvis 9% Type IV: internal completely 10%, worst prognosis

Chondral injury classification

grade 0: normal grade 1: softening grade 2: partial thickness defect, <50% cartilage depth grade 3: partial thickness defect, >50% cartilage depth grade 4: full thickness defect with or without underlying bone changes

Weinstabi classification of achilles injury

Type I: inflammatory response Type II: degenerative changes Type III: partial tear Type IV: complete tear

Sangeorzan classification of navicular body fractures

Type I Coronal fracture, no dislocation Type II Dorsolateral or plantar medial fracture with medial forefoot displacement Type III Comminuted fracture with lateral forefoot displacement

Sanders classification of calcaneal fractures

Two categories Based on number of fracture lines Type I non displaced, no matter how many fracture lins Type II single displaced fracture line – 2 part Type III two displaced fracture lines – 3 part Type IV comminuted Based on position of main fracture line A: lateral 1/3 of joint B: middle 1/3 of…

Hawkins classification of talar neck fractures

Type 1 Non-displaced Type 2 Displaced with posterior subtalar joint disruption Type 3 Displaced with disruption of both ankle and posterior subtalar joints Type 4 Displaced with disruption of ankle, posterior subtalar and talonavicular joints

Weber classification of malleolar fractures

Type A fracture below level of tibial plafond Type B fracture at level of tibial plafond Type C fracture above level of tibial plafond

Ideberg classification of intraarticular glenoid fractures

Kuhn classification of acromion fractures

Thompson classification of scapula fractures

Zdravkovic and Damholt classification of scapula fractures

Classification of acromioclavicular joint injury

Neer classification of distal clavicle fractures

Allman classification of clavicle fractures

5th edition WHO classification of pediatric bone tumors

Osteogenic tumors Subungual exostosis Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation Osteoblastoma Osteoid osteoma Chondromesenchymal hamartoma of chest wall Osteosarcoma Chondrogenic tumors Chondroblastoma Osteochondroma Chondromyxoid fibroma Enchondroma and enchondromatosis Chondrosarcoma Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma Other tumors Vascular tumors of bone Aneurysmal bone cyst Giant cell tumor Non ossifying fibroma Notochordal tumors Simple bone cyst Adamantinoma Osteofibrous dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia

5th edition WHO classification of pediatric soft tissue tumors

Adipocytic tumors Lipomatosis Lipoblastoma/lipoblastomatosis Liposarcoma Fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors Fasciitis Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva Fibroma of tendon sheath Gardner fibroma Fibrous hamartoma of infancy Lipofibromatosis Inclusion body infantile digital fibromatosis Juvenile hyaline fibrzomatosis Fibromatosis colli Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma Sinonasal angiofibroma Plantar/palmar fibromatosis Desmoid fibromatosis Infantile fibrosarcoma Giant cell fibroblastoma Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor …

5th edition WHO classification of pediatric leukemias and lymphomas

In the fifth edition, WHO classifies pediatric tumors separately from adult tumors. Myeloid neoplasms Myeloproliferative neoplasms Chronic myeloid leukemia, BCR::ABL1 positive Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia Myelodysplastic syndromes Refractory cytopenia of childhood Myelodysplastic syndromes with excess blasts Myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition Myeloid proliferations associated with Down syndrome Acute myeloid leukemia and related neoplasms Acute…

Garden classification of hip fractures

Stage 1  Undisplaced, incomplete, including impaction in valgus  Stage 2  Complete fracture, no displacement Stage 3  Complete fracture, varus angulation Stage 4  Completely displaced

AJCC staging of malignant bone tumors

Stage Grade  Size Metastasis IA Low < 8 cm None  IB Low  > 8 cm None  IIA High < 8 cm None  IIB High  > 8 cm None  III Any  Any  Skip metastasis IVA Any  Any  Pulmonary metastasis IVB Any Any  Non-pulmonary metastasis

7th edition AJCC TNM staging of adrenocortical carcinoma

TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed T0 No evidence of primary tumor  T1 Tumor 5 cm or less in greatest dimension, no extra-adrenal invasion T2 Tumor greater than 5 cm, no extra-adrenal invasion T3 Tumor of any size with local invasion, but not invading adjacent organs T4 Tumor of any size with invasion of adjacent…

FIGO staging of ovarian carcinoma

#foamed #foamrad #elearnrad #drbabu #kuwait #rad #radiology #radiologist #radres

8th edition TNM anal cancer staging

Stage I  T1 – tumor not more than 2 cm in greatest dimension N0 – no regional lymph nodes M0 – no distant metastases Stage IIa  T2 – tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension N0 – no regional lymph nodes M0 – no distant metastases Stage IIb…

8th edition TNM esophageal cancer staging

T T1a Invasion of lamina propria or muscular mucosa T1b Invasion of submucosa T2 Invasion of muscularis propria T3 Invasion of adventitia T4a Resectable tumor invading pleura, pericardium or diaphragm T4b Unresectable tumor invading aorta, airway, vertebrae etc N N0 No lymph nodes  N1 One to two regional lymph nodes  N2 Three to six regional…

O-RADS MRI risk stratification and management system

O-RADS MRI score Risk category Positive predictive value for malignancy Remarks 0 Incomplete evaluation – – 1 Normal ovaries – No ovarian lesion Simple cyst < or equal to 3 cm in premenopausal women Hemorrhagic cyst < or equal to 3 cm in premenopausal women Corpus luteum with or without hemorrhage < or equal to…

Grading of proximal interphalangeal joint instability

Grade 1 Distal avulsion of volar plate from base of middle phalanx.Hyperextension of PIP joint. (swan-neck deformity)Proximal avulsion of checkreins less common and can cause pseudoboutonniere deformity Grade 2 Volar plate injury extends to collateral ligaments.Dorsal subluxation produces more instability. Volar plate tilting with detachment of collateral ligament Grade 3 Fracture-dislocation of distal attachment of…

Sakakibara arthroscopic classification of medial plica

A cord-like elevation in synovial wall B shelf-like without covering anterior medial femoral condyle C large and shelf-like, covers anterior medial femoral condyle D central defect or fenestrated

Types of Morel-Lavallee lesion

I fluid-like serohematic effusion II subacute hematoma III chronic, organizing hematoma IV perifascial dissection, closed fatty tissue laceration V perifascial pseudonodular lesion VI infection with or without thick capsular septations and sinus tract

Jackson and Feagin grading of muscle contusion

Mild active or passive range of motion limited to less than 1/3 of normal. 6 days of disability. Moderate active motion limited to 1/3 to 2/3 of normal range due to muscle spasms. 56 days of disability Severe active motion limited to more than 2/3 of normal range of motion. More than 60 days of…

Grading of muscle strain

1 minimal disruption of musculotendinous unit (MTU). muscle spasm or cramp 2 partial tear with some intact MTU fibres. discomfort during sports or training, but resolves with rest 3A complete rupture of MTU 3B avulsion fracture at tendon origin or insertion

Arthroscopic/imaging classification of shoulder impingement

Type 1: rotator cuff degeneration or tendinosis without visible tears on either surfaceType 2: rotator cuff degeneration or tendinosis with partial-thickness tears of either articular or bursal surfacesType 3: complete-thickness rotator cuff tears of varying sizes, complexity, and functional compromise

Waldenstrom’s staging of Legg-Calve-Perthe disease

Initial stage increased head-socket distance, subchondral plate thinning, dense epiphysis Fragmentation stage subchondral fracture, inhomogeneous dense epiphysis which is porous, metaphyseal cysts Reparative stage normal bone in areas of resorption, removal of sclerotic bone. epiphysis is more homogeneous Growth stage re-ossification. normal femoral shape is approached Definitive stage final shape determined with joint congruency or…

Herring classification of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

A lateral pillar is not involved B <50% of lateral pillar is affected C >50% of lateral pillar is affected What is lateral pillar? Lateral 15 to 30% of epiphysis is called the lateral pillar

Salter-Thompson classification of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

A less than 50% of epiphysis involved B fracture of >50% of span of epiphysis

Catterall classification of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

I involvement of anterior epiphysis without metaphyseal reaction, sequestrum or subchondral fracture line. < 25% epiphysis is involved II more extensive or severe involvement of anterior epiphysis, preservation of medial and lateral segments. Sequestrum present, with anterolateral metaphyseal reaction. Subchondral fracture line that doesn’t extend to the apex of femoral epiphysis. Less than half of…

Mitchell staging system for avascular necrosis

Class A osteonecrotic lesion shows signal similar to fat – high on T1, intermediate on T2 Class B hips show signal of blood or hemorrhage (high on both T1 and T2) Class C hips show signal of fluid (low on T1, high on T2) Class D hips show signal of fibrous tissue (low on T1…

Neer classification of shoulder impingement syndrome

Stage 1: tendon edema and hemorrhage Stage 2: fibrosis and tendinitis  Stage 3: partial or complete tear of rotator cuff. Associated anterior acromial spurring, or greater tuberosity excrescence. Burial thickening, fibrosis. Greater tuberosity sclerosis. 

Snyder classification of complete rotator cuff tears

0 tear lacks full thickness communication between bursal and articular surfaces I small complete tear (puncture) II moderate < 2 cm tear involving one tendon without retraction III large 3-4 cm complete tear involving entire tendon with minimal retraction of torn edge IV massive tear involving two or more cuff tendons, associated retraction and scarring…

Grading of partial rotator cuff tears (depth)

1 < 3 mm deep 2 3 – 6 mm deep, < 50 % of cuff thickness involved 3 high grade partial tear > 6 mm deep, > 50 % cuff thickness involved

Snyder grading of partial rotator cuff tears

0 Normal I minimal superficial bursal or synovial irritation or mild capsular fraying in small localized area (< 1 cm) II fraying and failure of some rotator cuff fibres with synovial bursal or capsular injury (< 2 cm) III fraying and fragmentation of tendon fibres usually involving whole surface of a cuff tendon, mostly supraspinatus…

Snyder classification of acromial thickness

Classification of acromial thickness assessed at posterior margin of acromioclavicular joint Type A: thin, less than 8 mm  Type B: 8 to 12 mm Type C: thick, more than 12 mm

Mirizzi syndrome

Common bile duct narrowing and fibrosis due to chronic gallstone disease Stone usually impacted in gall bladder neck, cystic duct or cystic duct remnant Fistula can develop between gall bladder or cystic duct and common duct, stone may partially or totally pass into common duct Stricture commonly in upper and middle common duct Difficult to…

FIGO staging of endometrial carcinoma

Stage I Tumor confined to corpus uteri Ia – tumor extending to <50% of myometrial depth Ib – tumor extending to >50% of myometrial depth Stage II Tumor invades cervical stroma, but does not extend beyond the uterus Stage III Local and/or regional spread of the tumor IIIa – tumor invades serosa of corpus uteri…

8th edition TNM pancreatic cancer staging

T staging  TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed T0 No evidence of primary tumor Tis Carcinoma in situ T1 Tumor < or = 2 cm in greatest dimension T2 Tumor > 2 cm, but < or = 4 cm in greatest dimension T3 Tumor > 4 cm in greatest dimension T4 Tumor involves the celiac…

8th edition TNM prostate cancer staging

T – primary tumor (clinical staging) TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed T0 No evidence of primary tumor T1 Clinically inapparent tumor that is not palpable  T1a – tumor incidental histological finding in 5% or less of tissue resected T1b – tumor incidental histological finding in more than 5% of tissue resected T1c – tumor…

de Morsier syndrome

Hypopituitarism Optic nerve hypoplasia Absence of septum pellucidum

Classification of adult scoliosis

Aebi et. al classified adult scoliosis into three types Type Features I Primary degenerative scoliosisDevelops after skeletal maturityMinimal structural deformitiesAdvanced degenerative changesLumbar spine most commonAsymmetric degeneration of disc and facet joints with osteoporotic fractures II Progressive idiopathic deformityDevelops before skeletal maturitySymptomatic in adult lifeCervical, thoracic or lumbar III Secondary degenerative scoliosisSecondary to pelvic obliquity, hip…

8th edition TNM colorectal cancer staging

Stage Tumor extent Dukes 5-year survival I T1 – invades submucosa T2 – invades muscularis propria No nodal involvement, no distant metastasis A 85-95% II T3 – invades outside muscularis propria T4a – invades visceral peritoneum T4b – invades other organs No nodal involvement, no distant metastasis B 60-80% III N1 – 1 to 3…

8th edition AJCC gastric cancer staging

T staging TX Primary tumor cannot be assessed T0 No evidence of primary tumor Tis Carcinoma in situ: intraepithelial tumor without invasion of the lamina propria, high-grade dysplasia T1 Tumor invades lamina propria, muscularis mucosa or submucosa T1a Tumor invades lamina propria or muscularis mucosa T1b Tumor invades the submucosa T2 Tumor invades the muscularis…

Erdheim-Chester disease

Rare form of histiocytosis Mean age 55 – 60 years M:F = 3:1 Skeletal involvement 95% Cardiovascular involvement 50% Retroperitoneal fibrosis 30% CNS involvement Diabetes insipidus Exophthalmos Imaging  Bilateral, symmetrical cortical/medullary sclerosis of major long bone metadiaphyses with epiphyseal sparing Bone scintigraphy, PET-CT show increased uptake

8th edition TNM lung cancer staging

T staging Tx Tumor in sputum/bronchial washings but not seen in imaging or bronchoscopy T0 No evidence of tumor Tis Carcinoma in situ T1 ≤3 cm surrounded by lung/visceral pleura, not involving main bronchus T1a(mi) Minimally invasive carcinoma T1a ≤1 cm T1b >1 to ≤2 cm T1c >2 to ≤3 cm T2 >3 to ≤5…

Endoleak classification

Type Features I secondary to inadequate seal at the EVAR anchor site; occurs in up to 10% of case, almost never resolves and usually requires treatment to reseal the defect II the sac fills retrogradely via branch vessels arising from the lumbar, inferior mesenteric or internal iliac arteries and occurs in up to 25% of…

International neuroblastoma staging system

Stage Description 1 localized tumor confined to area of origin; complete gross resection with or without microscopic residual disease; identifiable ipsilateral and contralateral lymph nodes negative macroscopically 2A localized tumor with incomplete gross excision; identifiable ipsilateral and contralateral lymph nodes negative microscopically 2B unilateral tumor with complete or incomplete gross resection with positive ipsilateral regional…

Salter-Harris classification of fractures

Type Finding I 5%isolated to growth plate with epiphyseal separationno adjacent bone fracturefracture line passes through hypertrophic layer of physis II 75%fracture splits growth plate, extends into metaphysis, separating a small fragment of bonesecondary to shearing or avulsive forcesseen in children 10-16 years of age III 10%fracture line passes through epiphysis, then horizontally across growth…

Graf angles in developmental dysplasia of hip

Type Alpha angle Beta angle Bony roof Ossific rim Cartilage roof Interpretation I a >60 <55 good sharp covers femoral head mature I b >60 >55 good usually blunt covers head mature II a 50-59 >55 deficient rounded covers head < 3 months of age (physiological ossification delay) II b 50-59 >55 deficient rounded covers…

Radiographic grading of Vesicoureteric Reflux

Grade Finding I ureter and upper collecting system without dilatation II mild dilatation of ureter and renal pelvis with minimal blunting of fornices III moderate dilatation of ureter and renal pelvis with minimal blunting of fornices IV moderate dilatation and tortuosity of ureter with moderate dilatation of renal pelvis and calyces, obliteration of sharp angle…

Ultrasound classification of pelvicalyceal dilatation

Type Finding 0 collecting system hardly visible, normal I just renal pelvis visible, calyces not seen. pelvic diameter <7 mm, considered normal II axial renal pelvis diameter <10 mm, some calyces visible but with normal forniceal and papillar shape / configuration III marked dilatation of calyces and pelvis, pelvic axial width >10 mm with flattened…

Modified Stocker Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations Classification

Type  Description  0  Incompatible with life  1  Commonest (>65%) Several large intercommunicating cysts (up to 10 cm) Mediastinal shift common  2  10-15% Smaller than other types Small evenly sized cysts (up to 2 cm) Other associated congenital abnormalities  3  8% cases Large solid appearing lesion with microcysts (<5 mm) Causes mediastinal shift Poor prognosis  4  10-15% Large cysts, indistinguishable from type 1 

9th AJCC cervical cancer staging

T category  FIGO stage  T criteria  TX    Primary tumor cannot be assessed  T0    No evidence of primary tumor  T1  I  Carcinoma is strictly confined to cervix (extension to corpus should be disregarded)  T1a  IA  Invasive carcinoma that can be diagnosed by microscopy with maximum depth of invasion ≤5 mm  T1a1  IA1  Measured stromal…

West syndrome

Triad of myoclonic seizures hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram developmental delay

Turner syndrome

monosomy 45, XO 1 in 3000-5000 skeletal growth arrest at 15 years Cardia coarctation aortic stenosis idiopathic hypertension lymphangiectasia, generalized hydros head and neck webbed neck high palate low irregular nuchal line nuchal cystic hygroma endocrine thyromegaly pigmented nevi, keloid formation sexual infantilism primary amenorrhea absent secondary sex characteristics raised urinary gonadotrophins chest wide spaced…

Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome

infantile form of Turner syndrome congenital webbed neck widely separated nipples hand and feet lymphedema

Williams syndrome

idiopathic hypercalcemia of infancy neonatal hypercalcemia MSK osteosclerosis dense broad zone of provisional calcification bone islands in spongiosa dense vertebral end plates radiolucent metaphyseal bands craniosynostosis Cardio supravalvular aortic stenosis aortic hypoplasia valvular pulmonary artery stenosis ASD VSD Abdomen colonic diverticula bladder diverticula

Joubert syndrome

total aplasia of cerebellar vermis failure of formation of decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles lack of pyramidal decussations other anomalies of midbrain crossing tracts and their nuclei associated anomalies: renal cysts, ocular abnormalities, liver fibrosis, hypothalamic hamartomas, polymicrogyria clinical presentation tachypnea abnormal eye movements ataxia occasionally clinically normal MRI cleft within vermis small midbrain superior…

Cotswold’s modification of Ann Arbor staging of Hodgkin’s disease

Stage Classification I involvement of single lymph node region (I) or a single extralymphatic organ or site (IE) II involvement of two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (II) or on one or more lymph node regions plus an extralymphatic site (IIE) III involvement of lymph node regions on…

Harborview high-risk criteria for cervical spine injury

Computed tomography is indicated in any of the following criteria presence of significant head injury presence of focal neurological deficit(s) presence of pelvic or multiple extremity fractures combined impact of accident >50 km/h death at the scene of motor vehicle accident accident involved fall from a height of 3 meter or more Harborview high-risk criteria

Wells clinical prediction rule for pulmonary embolism

Criteria Points previous pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis 1.5 heart rate > 100 beats per min 1.5 surgery or immobilization < 4 weeks 1.5 hemoptysis 1 active cancer 1 clinical signs of deep venous thrombosis 3 alternative diagnosis less likely than pulmonary embolism 3 Pulmonary embolism is likely if > 4 points

Facet joint osteoarthritis grading

Weishaupt et al. refined grading of Pathria et al. to grade facet joint osteoarthritis on CT and MRI Grading Grade 0 normal facet joint space (2-4 mm width) Grade 1 narrowing of joint space (<2 mm) and/or small osteophytes and/or mild hypertrophy of articular processes Grade 2 narrowing of joint space and/or moderate osteophytes and/or…

Carney complex

autosomal dominant myxoma (heart, breast, skin) abnormal skin pigmentation endocrine abnormalities: primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease leading to ACTH- independent Cushing’s syndrome

KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Staging

Using serum creatinine as reference, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria has been endorsed by NKF Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Serum creatinine is the most practical and common method of assessing acute kidney injury Stage 1 1.5 – 1.9 times baseline serum creatinine or Increase in serum creatinine >= 0.3 mg/dl (>= 26.5…

Spondylolisthesis types

Grading of meniscal tears

Bigliani classification of acromion morphology

Cystic duct insertion variants

Extensor compartments of wrist

Uterine anomalies

Hematoma signals on an MRI

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures


5th edition, 2013 reporting system was introduced to standardize reporting of breast lesions. The original ACR reporting document can be downloaded here. Categories Category 0 – Incomplete need additional imaging for evaluation / prior images for comparison recall the patient for the above information Category 1 – Negative needs only routine mammographic screening no likelihood…


A system introduced to standardize reporting of thyroid nodules on an ultrasound. Five ultrasound features are evaluated with points awarded to each feature. Composition cystic or almost completely cystic – 0 spongiform – 0 mixed cystic and solid – 1 solid or almost completely solid – 2 Echogenicity anechoic – 0 hyperechoic or isoechoic -…

Bosniak classification of renal cysts

New York criteria for radiological grading of sacroiliitis

Devised in 1966, it was modified in 1984 to enable the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. To date, it is the most used classification in radiography. Studies have shown that, it could take up to 9 years after disease onset for radiographic changes to appear. MRI is a no brainer in picking up disease way before…

Sarteschi grading of varicocele

Numerous classifications are around for grading varioceles. One of the most popular ones used is using gray scale and color doppler ultrasound to classify severity of varicoceles Classification Grade 1 No 2D evidence of scrotal varicosity Prolonged reflux in inguinal vessels only during Valsalva Grade 2 Small varicosity reaching superior pole of testis, increasing in…

St. James’s university hospital classification of perianal fistulas

An MR imaging based classification was proposed to augment the surgical classification offered by Park primarily to facilitate radiologists to provide accurate detailed descriptive reports that will influence the management of these fistulas. Classification Grade 1: simple linear intersphincteric fistula Grade 2: intersphincteric fistula with an abscess or secondary track Grade 3: transsphincteric fistula Grade 4: transsphincteric…

Park classification of perianal fistulas

Park et al described perianal fistulas in the coronal plane according to course of fistula and relation to internal and external sphincters. This was based on surgical findings of 400 patients referred to St Mark’s Hospital surgery in London, England. Classification Intersphincteric Transsphincteric Suprasphincteric Extrasphincteric Key inferences External sphincter is the key landmark for this…

Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis

At and about the time when Ficat and Arlet in the late 70s brought out their system of classification, Steinberg and colleagues proposed a system which also incorporates quantitative assessment of femoral head involvement. This is primarily useful in standardizing reporting of direct comparison between series of studies of the same patient. Staging Stage 0 normal or…

Ficat and Arlet staging of hip avascular necrosis

Professor R.P. Ficat and professor J. Arlet in the late 70s devised a staging system for idiopathic bone necrosis of femoral head based on two fundamental concepts: a standard radiograph shows only the shadow of the mineralized portion of the bone. bone necrosis is the end result of severe and prolonged ischemia. Staging Stage 0…

Carotid stenosis grading

A standardized systematic approach is essential for grading carotid stenosis using doppler ultrasound. It involves taking multiple parameters into consideration: B mode imaging: vessel diameter, vessel area plaque characterization assessing color flow documenting hemodynamic flow velocities at and beyond stenosis understanding collateral flow status Low degree stenosis (0% to 40%) [NASCET] B-mode imaging is relevant.…

WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumors

2014 revision of the 2003 WHO classification is the one currently in place that classifies these rare uterine mesenchymal neoplasms incorporating molecular findings Classification Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HGESS) Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) Read more Ali, Rola H., and Marjan Rouzbahman. “Endometrial stromal tumours revisited: an…

AAST liver injury scale

N.B. advance one grade for multiple injuries up to grade III 1994 revision Moore et al. AAST 

AAST spleen injury scale

N.B. advance one grade for multiple injuries up to grade III 1994 revision Moore et al. AAST. 

AAST lung injury scale

N.B.  Increase one grade for bilateral injuries up to grade III. Hemothorax is scored under thoracic vascular injury scale. 

AAST cervical vascular injury scale

N.B.  Increase one grade for multiple grade III or IV injuries involving more than 50% vessel circumference. Decrease one grade for less than 25% vessel circumference disruption for grade IV or V.

Modified Fisher grading – subarachnoid hemorrhage

In 2006, Frontera et al. modified the Fisher scale and compared it with the original scale to see which was a better predictor. They studied 1355 patients and concluded the modified scale better predicts symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Fisher grading – subarachnoid hemorrhage

#Fisher grading #SAH #subarachnoid #hemorrhage #foamed #ct

Glasgow Coma Scale

4 steps of assessment Check for factors interfering with communication, ability to respond and other injuries. Observe eye opening, content of speech and movements of right and left sides. Stimulate – spoken or shouted interest, pressure on finger tip, trapezius or supraorbita notch Assign according to highest response obtained. EYE OPENING VERBAL RESPONSE BEST MOTOR RESPONSE…