• small split in ventral abdominal wall
  • usually to right of umbilicus
  • no associated anomalies
  • due to intrauterine vascular accident or asymmetry in lateral body wall folds with failure of fusion
  • seen in mothers < 20 years
  • serious complications: short bowel syndrome, liver disease due to intestinal failure or dysmotility, necrotizing enterocolitis
  • bowels floating in amniotic fluid
  • diagnosis early in second trimester
  • no covering membrane
  • complicated or complex: intestinal atresia or stenosis, bowel perforation, volvulus or necrosis
  • amniotic fluid exposure of bowel causes thick fibrous peel coating the bowel
  • upper GI studies post repair: gastroesophageal reflux, small bowel dilatation, prolonged transit time. malrotation common