Pulmonary edema

Increased hydrostatic pressure

  • Heart disease – left ventricular failure, mitral valve disease, left atrial myxoma
  • Pulmonary venous disease – veno occlusive disease, mediastinal fibrosis
  • Pericardial disease – constrictive pericarditis, pericardial effusion
  • Drugs – anti-arrhythmic, beta blockers
  • Renal failure
  • Intravenous fluid overload

Decreased colloid osmotic pressure

  • Hypoproteinemia
  • Rapid re-expansion of lung
  • Transfusion of crystalloid fluid

Increased capillary permeability

  • Aspiration – near drowning, Mendelson syndrome
  • Inhalational injury
  • Trauma – contusion, radiation
  • Injury via bloodstream (shock, sepsis, fat embolism, drugs, anaphylaxis, high altitude, acute large airway obstruction