Reference charts

Goldman and Sandler classification of urethral injuries

Grade IPosterior urethra stretched but intactGrade IIPartial or complete posterior urethral tear above intact urogenital diaphragmGrade IIIPartial or complete tear of combined anterior and posterior urethra with torn urogenital diaphragmGrade IVBladder neck injury with extension to the urethraGrade IVaInjury to bladder base with extravasation simulating type IV Grade VIsolated anterior urethral injury

Colapinto and McCallum classification of urethral injuries

Grade IPosterior urethra stretched but intactGrade II Posterior urethral tear above intact urogenital diaphragmGrade IIIPosterior urethral tear with extravasation through torn urogenital diaphragm

AAST renal injury scale

GradeParenchymaCollecting systemVascularGrade I Sub capsular hematoma and/or contusionNo injuryNo injuryGrade II Laceration < 1 cm in depth and into cortex, small perirenal hematoma contained within Gerota fasciaNo injuryNo injuryGrade IIILaceration > 1 cm in depth and into medulla, hematoma contained within Gerota fasciaNo injuryNo injuryGrade IVLaceration through the parenchyma into the urinary collecting systemLaceration, one or more…

Pediatric spleen span in Indian girls

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Pediatric spleen span in Indian boys

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Pediatric liver span in Indian girls

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Pediatric liver span in Indian boys

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Fetal heart rate

Rate (beats/min)R-R interval (s)Normal – 20 weeks120-1600.5-0.375Normal – 36 weeks110-1500.55-0.4Tachycardia>180<0.33Bradycardia<100>0.6

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

Introduced in 1987Most widely available bone density technique Technique Two X-ray beam with differing kVp (30-50 keV and >70 keV) used, this enables soft tissue subtractionBMD measured in given area of bone as g/cm3.Spatial resolution 1 to 0.5 mmLow radiation dose: 1-6 µSv Anatomical locations L1-L4 spineProximal femurDistal radius Scores Z-scores: SD compared with an…

Diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1

At least two major criteria makes the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 Major criteria cafe au lait spotsfreckling in inguinal or axillary areasone plexiform neurofibroma or two neurofibromas of any typevisual pathway gliomatwo or more Lisch nodules of irisdistinctive osseous lesion (sphenoid dysplasia or thinning of cortex)first-degree relative with neurofibromatosis-1 Minor criteria small staturemacrocephalyscoliosispectus excavatushamartomatous…

Ossification centres around elbow

AnatomyAge (years) of appearance of ossification centre on radiographAge (years) of fusionCapitellum0-213-16Radial head3-613-17Medial epicondyle3-9up to 20Trochlea7-1313-16Olecranon 8-1013-16Lateral epicondyle8-1213-16’CRITOE’

Interpedicular distance

Normal cervical prevertebral soft tissue thickness

Acromiohumeral interval

Acromioclavicular joint space

Radiocapitellar line

Powers ratio

Fetal weight percentiles – third trimester

Doubilet, Peter M., et al. “Improved birth weight table for neonates developed from gestations dated by early ultrasonography.” Journal of ultrasound in medicine 16.4 (1997): 241-249.

Crown rump length – gestational age

Robinson, H. P., and J. E. E. Fleming. “A critical evaluation of sonar “crown‐rump length” measurements.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 82.9 (1975): 702-710.

Mean sac diameter and gestational age

These measurements are taken in transvaginal scan. Daya, S. A. L. I. M., et al. “Early pregnancy assessment with transvaginal ultrasound scanning.” CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal 144.4 (1991): 441.

Abdominal circumference – fetal biometry

Kurmanavicius, Juozas, et al. “Fetal ultrasound biometry: 2. Abdomen and femur length reference values.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 106.2 (1999): 136-143.

Head circumference – fetal biometry

Kurmanavicius, Juozas, et al. “Fetal ultrasound biometry: 2. Abdomen and femur length reference values.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 106.2 (1999): 136-143.

Femur length – fetal biometry

Kurmanavicius, Juozas, et al. “Fetal ultrasound biometry: 2. Abdomen and femur length reference values.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 106.2 (1999): 136-143.

Biparietal diameter – fetal biometry

Kurmanavicius, Juozas, et al. “Fetal ultrasound biometry: 1. Head reference values.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology106.2 (1999): 126-135.