Testicular microlithiasis

  • Calcium deposits in lumina of seminiferous tubules
  • Associated with cryptorchidism, infertility, Klinefelter syndrome, testicular infarction, testicular dysgenesis, infertility, testicular torsion and atrophy
  • Association with malignancy is controversial and not established
  • In isolation, microlithiasis needs no follow up 
  • When associated with previous malignancy, maldescent, atrophy (<12 ml), orchidopexy or history of testicular malignancy in first-degree relative, European Society of Urogenital Radiology guidelines recommend annual follow up till 55 years of age
Imaging 
  • US: Five or more echogenic non-shadowing foci of 1-3 mm
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Bach, Ariadne M., et al. “Testicular microlithiasis: what is its association with testicular cancer?.” Radiology 220.1 (2001): 70-75.

Backus, Mark L., et al. “Testicular microlithiasis: imaging appearances and pathologic correlation.” Radiology 192.3 (1994): 781-785.