- Calcium deposits in lumina of seminiferous tubules
- Associated with cryptorchidism, infertility, Klinefelter syndrome, testicular infarction, testicular dysgenesis, infertility, testicular torsion and atrophy
- Association with malignancy is controversial and not established
- In isolation, microlithiasis needs no follow up
- When associated with previous malignancy, maldescent, atrophy (<12 ml), orchidopexy or history of testicular malignancy in first-degree relative, European Society of Urogenital Radiology guidelines recommend annual follow up till 55 years of age
- US: Five or more echogenic non-shadowing foci of 1-3 mm
Bach, Ariadne M., et al. “Testicular microlithiasis: what is its association with testicular cancer?.” Radiology 220.1 (2001): 70-75.
Backus, Mark L., et al. “Testicular microlithiasis: imaging appearances and pathologic correlation.” Radiology 192.3 (1994): 781-785.